Feedback in schools by John Hattie


Feedback is one of the top 10 influences on student achievement. John Hattie’s research has focused on feedback for a long time.

In 2011 John Hattie contributed to a publication by Sutton, Hornsey & Douglas about Feedback: The communication of praise, criticism, and advice with an article about ‘Feedback in schools’.

This short text is definitely a must-read for everybody trying to learn more about the feedback model behind the Visible Learning research. John Hattie provides some interesting clarifications and explanations to his previous articles about feedback in schools:

  1. Giving is not receiving: Teachers may claim they give much feedback, but the more appropriate measure is the nature of feedback received (and this is often quite little).
  2. The culture of the student can influence the feedback effects: Feedback is not only differentially given but also differentially received.
  3. Disconfirmation is more powerful than confirmation: When feedback is provided that disconfirms then there can be greater change, provided it is accepted.
  4. Errors need to be welcomed: The exposure to errors in a safe environment can lead to higher performance
  5. The power of peers: Interventions that aim to foster correct peer feedback are needed.
  6. Feedback from assessment: Assessment (…) could and should also provide feedback to teachers about their methods.
  7. There are many strategies to maximize the power of feedback: Shute (2008) provided nine guidelines for using feedback to enhance learning:
    • focus feedback on the task not the learner,
    • provide elaborated feedback,
    • present elaborated feedback in manageable units,
    • be specific and clear with feedback messages,
    • keep feedback as simple as possible but no simpler,
    • reduce uncertainty between performance and goals,
    • give unbiased, objective feedback, written or via computer,
    • promote a learning goal orientation via feedback,
    • provide feedback after learners have attempted a solution.

(cf. John Hattie in Sutton, Hornsey,  & Douglas (2011), Feedback: The communication of praise, criticism, and advice.)

You can buy the book on or on Sutton, Hornsey & Douglas(2011): Feedback: The communication of praise, criticism, and advice.

You can download the article Feedback in schools by John Hattie from

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Posted in Books, Books in English, Feedback, Visible Learning
One comment on “Feedback in schools by John Hattie
  1. Ann Horrego says:

    The article I read is called Feedback in Schools, by John Hattie. Providing students with opportunities to practice and point out areas that need additional practice/redirection and next steps is essential to continued academic growth and achievement. Too often the teacher “thinks” the observer wants to see academic tasks completed perfectly and therefore the teacher will opt to perform certain tasks, such as reading directions to the class instead of asking for volunteers for fear of loss of time or a mistake. Part of the process of observing teaching is the manner in which the mistake is identified and redirected by the teacher so that real learning can take place. The observer is not there to see how perfectly everyone performs a task with little or no need for academic interventions and or reteaching. In order to provide feedback that is meaningful circulation with less teacher centered instructional time is essential. Students need to see that making a mistake is part of the learning process; with consistent meaningful feedback students will become greater risk takers and achieve greater academic success.

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  1. […] In an article for a book about feedback John Hattie provides some interesting clarifications and explanations to research about 'Feedback in schools'.  […]

  2. […] Feedback in Schools – Feedback falls in the top 10 most influential factors on a child’s achievement, according to the research of John Hattie. Check out this article for some more thoughts on the feedback we as educators give to our students. […]

  3. […] Visible Learning: Feedback in schools by John Hattie Educational Leadership [Takeaways]: 7 Things to Remember about Feedback As the coaches have been studying the instructional practice of “monitoring learning and providing descriptive feedback to and among students,” I’ve learned that feedback is an area in which we can grow as educators. It’s very powerful when given accurately, but — like many teachers — I’ve often given praise or a score (rather than true feedback).  […]

  4. […] every word that is written and then, getting students to respond to it. We can probably thank Hattie, the Sutton Trust and OFSTED reports for this. Thanks guys, you have increased our workload […]

  5. […] Metaanálisis de John Hattie en la enseñanza eficaz y más precisamente retroalimentación , lo tenemos […]

  6. […] In an article for a book about feedback John Hattie provides some interesting clarifications and explanations to research about 'Feedback in schools'.  […]

  7. […] combining feedback that is timely, accurate, and specific (Hattie’s research) and grounding it with deliberate practice you create a rich breeding ground to increase fluency […]

  8. […] you back? Like I was saying, we thrive off of feedback and quick checks on how we are doing. Hattie has shown that feedback is one of the most significant influences on student performance. Whether it is peer-to-peer, […]

  9. […] (see a detailed explanation on the Google blog). From John Hattie’s research, we know that giving students effective feedback has a significant — if not the greatest — impact on student learning. Google Forms […]

  10. […] term feedback, as per Hattie’s research and the Education Endowment Foundation’s research show positive […]

  11. […] in the top 20 influences on student achievement. Indeed, feedback is so important, he’s written a book about […]

  12. […] Hattie, student feedback is one of the top ten influences on educational achievement (according to Feedback in Schools). Too many times teachers hand back an assessment without ever giving any verbal feedback, or […]

  13. […] Einflussgröße, um den Lernerfolg von Schülerinnen und Schülern (SuS) zu verbessern – so der bekannte Bildungsforscher John Hattie. Gutes Feedback gibt uns wertvolle Aufschlüsse über uns selbst und darüber wie andere uns sehen. […]

  14. […] thoughts on the subject when doing it within a perfect manner using a best literature review, Feedback in schools by John Hattie – VISIBLE LEARNING the writer is probably to secure more comprehension. To accomplish a ideal medi cal record […]

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About Visible Learning
Visible Learning means an enhanced role for teachers as they become evaluators of their own teaching. Visible Teaching and Learning occurs when teachers see learning through the eyes of students and help them become their own teachers.

Visible Learning plus is a professional development programme for teachers. It provides an in-depth review and change model for schools based on John Hattie's research. With a seminar and support series the Visible Learning plus team helps schools to find out about the impact they are having on student achievement.