- Giving is not receiving: Teachers may claim they give much feedback, but the more appropriate measure is the nature of feedback received (and this is often quite little).
- The culture of the student can influence the feedback effects: Feedback is not only differentially given but also differentially received.
- Disconfirmation is more powerful than confirmation: When feedback is provided that disconfirms then there can be greater change, provided it is accepted.
- Errors need to be welcomed: The exposure to errors in a safe environment can lead to higher performance
- The power of peers: Interventions that aim to foster correct peer feedback are needed.
- Feedback from assessment: Assessment (…) could and should also provide feedback to teachers about their methods.
- There are many strategies to maximize the power of feedback: Shute (2008) provided nine guidelines for using feedback to enhance learning:
- focus feedback on the task not the learner,
- provide elaborated feedback,
- present elaborated feedback in manageable units,
- be specific and clear with feedback messages,
- keep feedback as simple as possible but no simpler,
- reduce uncertainty between performance and goals,
- give unbiased, objective feedback, written or via computer,
- promote a learning goal orientation via feedback,
- provide feedback after learners have attempted a solution.
(cf. John Hattie in Sutton, Hornsey, & Douglas (2011), Feedback: The communication of praise, criticism, and advice.)
You can download the article Feedback in schools by John Hattie from visiblelearningplus.com