Hattie Ranking: Influences And Effect Sizes Related To Student Achievement

John Hattie developed a way of ranking various influences in different meta-analyses according to their effect sizes. In his ground-breaking study “Visible Learning” he ranked those influences which are related to learning outcomes from very positive effects to very negative effects on student achievement. Hattie found that the average effect size of all the interventions he studied was 0.40. Therefore he decided to judge the success of influences relative to this ‘hinge point’, in order to find an answer to the question “What works best in education?”

Hattie studied six areas that contribute to learning: the student, the home, the school, the curricula, the teacher, and teaching and learning approaches. But Hattie did not merely provide a list of the relative effects of the different influences on student achievement. He also tells the story underlying the data. He found that the key to making a difference was making teaching and learning visible. He further explained this story in his book “Visible learning for teachers“.

Here is an overview of the Hattie effect size list that contains 138 influences and effect sizes across all areas related to student achievement. The list visualized here is related to Hattie (2009) Visible Learning. Hattie constantly updates this list with more meta studies. You can find an updated version in Hattie (2011) Visible Learning for Teachers.



Hattie ranking: Influences and effect sizes related to student achievement (Hattie-Rangliste)


By Sebastian Waack. Follow me on Twitter. Always happy to talk!

16 comments on “Hattie Ranking: Influences And Effect Sizes Related To Student Achievement
  1. Tom Barrett says:

    Hi there – thanks for sharing the graphic – not sure if someone has already pointed out to you the error. You have “Classroom Behavioural” with an effect size of 0.8

    I was looking for Classroom Discussion and assume you must have got those mixed up. Classroom Behavioural has an effect size of only 0.62.

    Hope this helps with a revision of the graphic – cheers

    • Sebastian Waack says:

      Hi Tom,
      Thanks for pointing that out! I double checked the issue with Hattie’s two books about “Visible Learning”.
      The list I visualized for this website is related to Hattie (2009) Visible Learning.
      Hattie constantly updates his list with more meta studies. I suggest that your comment relates to an updated list in Hattie (2011) Visible Learning for Teachers?
      Cheers, Sebastian

      • Clare says:

        Can someone help me please? I have seen many different tables of Hattie’s effect sizes and the order and effect size seems to differ quite significantly between them. Why is this? I am trying to use them for an evaluative model and I am confused as to which order and effect size I should use.

        With thanks for any clarification you can offer.

        • Sebastian Waack says:

          Hi Clare,
          As Hattie has updated the ranking in his newer books I would recommend to use the latest version of the list in “Visible Learning for Teachers” which cites over 900 meta studies.

    • Erica Musselwhite says:

      I am looking at this graph and am curious as to what age group this study was done on when it comes to education.

  2. Matt Lottes says:


    I’ve been reading a book called Spark, by John Ratey. In it, he argues that cardio exercise has a large influence on student success. Does anyone know where this might fit into Hattie’s effects, or any related studies?

  3. Graeme Miller says:

    I note that peer tutoring has a 0.55 effect but mentoring which Hattie states is a form of peer tutoring has a 0.15 effect. How can there be this level of difference? One could assume from this that mentoring is not a particularly worthwhile investment but there would be few people who have achieved eminence in their fields who were not heavily influenced by a mentor.

    • Mike says:

      “Peer mentoring” is a specific kind of program. Likewise, I’m guessing Hattie’s “mentoring” isn’t what you have in mind. If you look at mentoring programs, it’s not like having a single brilliant individual who intimately guides you throughout a period of life. This is very hard to do well in the broader school system. You need way too many mentors to be practical, not to mention paying them and matching them up. Also, not all students respond well. Great people have generally relied on and responded to mentors in their development. But try fixing up a typical student with a typical mentor, and you’ll see it hard to predict the outcome.

  4. Daniel Reeders says:

    Hello, I am about to buy the book but I wondered if someone could just quickly fill me in here on what statistic is being used to represent the effect size, e.g. r or r^2 or z? Thanks.

    • Sebastian Waack says:

      Hello Daniel,
      Hattie uses Cohen’s d to represent the effect size. Cohen’s d is defined as the difference between two means divided by a standard deviation of the pooled groups or of the control group alone.
      Cheers, Sebastian

  5. Brad says:

    OK. I am not a statistician but I have some questions about Hattie’s explanation as to how publication bias does not affect his results. You can find the questions here:

  6. Dr John Reddington Ph.D, MAPS says:

    Comprehensive school entry screening is not specifically mentioned
    by Prof. John Hattie. However certain elements are:
    Feedback, Evaluation, Classroom Behaviour, Interventions for
    the Learning Disabled, Prior Achievement, Home Environment, Early Intervention, Parent Involvement, Preterm Birth Weight, Reducing Anxiety, SES. But others are missing eg. The division of Behaviour into Internal and External, the effects of below average Speech-Language level, Resilience, etc.
    The validity of the 20 years research on Parent, Teacher and Child-based school entry screening is contained in Reddington & Wheeldon (2009)which can be sent to Prof. Hattie (also presented at the International Conference on Applied Psychology, Paris, July, 2014).
    Prof. Hattie’s hierarchies are an extremely helpful guide, and checklist, against which to compare the Parent, Teacher and Child based items of the school entry screening system.

  7. Kunal Chawla says:

    I purchased the Visible Learning book and appreciate the ranking and effect sizes.

    Although, there isnt a place anywhere in the book where the intervention labels are explained in detail.

    For instance, what does Piagetian programs mean; what do creativity programs entail; how are repeated reading programs executed?

    Is there a way I can find out more information on what the labels mean to John Hattie?

80 other websites write about for "Hattie Ranking: Influences And Effect Sizes Related To Student Achievement"
  1. […] can see the full rankings here, with the teaching effects separated out here. If you haven’t seen this data already, you […]

  2. […] of this articulation is worthless unless it has a positive impact on student learning. According to Hattie’s Visible Learning meta-analyses, integrated curriculum has an impact of only d=0.39 (average). However, professional development […]

  3. […] Hattie Ranking: Influences And Effect Sizes Related To Student Achievement | VISIBLE LEARNING […]

  4. […] Öğrenme metotlarının etki büyüklüğüne göre sıralaması […]

  5. […] is the decisive factor in child development – all of the evidence, from PISA to meta-studies by the likes of John Hattie, points this way. Yet, as Claxton et al. point out, instead of “pursuing an enlightened approach […]

  6. […] maintain ‘standards’ (and as a result, open inquiry as curriculum ranks pretty low on Hattie’s impacts). However, if we focus only on the content, insisting that to be successful all students must meet […]

  7. […] what does Hattie’s meta-analysis say about feedback, micro-teaching, formative evaluation, etc? They are amongst the top approaches […]

  8. […] process more compelling Providing environments/ opportunity for ongoing learning Crucial – effect sizes Challenge: staff development days Building common understandings More considered thinking, […]

  9. […] to Hattie, feedback is one of the top 10 influences on student […]

  10. […] Hattie effect size list of 138 influences across all areas related to student achievement.  […]

  11. […] 138 Influences Related To Achievement – Hattie effect size list […]

  12. […] The work of John Hattie (above) suggests that feedback (with an effect size of 0.73) is well within ‘the zone of desired effects’ i.e. it makes a significant difference to student learning.  If you want to read more about Hattie’s work and ‘effect sizes’ there is more on this here. […]

  13. […] metastudie av metastudiene – Visible Learning rangerer for eksempel ”teacher training” og ”teacher subject matter knowledge” nær bunnen […]

  14. […] savoir davantage sur ses travaux et j’ai été particulièrement impressionné par le « Hattie Ranking », une façon de classifier les différentes influences selon leur niveau […]

  15. […] smaller studies and tried to answer one question: what works in education? Hattie came up with a list of things that drive students’ performance. Turns out that a bunch of them are ultimately […]

  16. […] werden und ergeben so das ‘Hattie-Ranking’. Alle Effektstärken haben einprägsame (englische) Bezeichnungen – das macht es jedoch auch notwendig, genauer hinzusehen, da […]

  17. […] article here where you will find an overview of the Hattie effect size list that contains 138 influences and […]

  18. […] that work, but a measured accounting of which of these work significantly better than most. Among the top ten, at the far end of the statistical curve, feedback – meaning feedback to the teacher – appears. […]

  19. […] we were surprised to discover that ‘students own expectations’ ranked number one on Hattie’s 138 influences relating to achievement. As future educators it is important for us to first understand what this means for our students […]

  20. […] de lues, je n’allais pas ajouter Hattie à la liste… Cela dit, j’étais fort intriguée par l’échelle des 138 influences reliées aux réussites des élèves. En effet, cette nomenclature m’apparaissait s’inscrire dans la recherche de concepts-clés […]

  21. […] Hattie Ranking: Influences and Effect Sizes Related To Student Achievement […]

  22. […] one the most powerful things teachers can provide for students in classrooms is formative feedback. John Hattie’s meta-analysis of educational research places feedback at the top of the instructional hierarchy (0.73 effect size […]

  23. […] also ridiculous. Some of the most effective teacher-influenced instructional strategies included in John Hattie’s research would suggest that “discovering” concepts isn’t always the best way to go. […]

  24. […] of 15 years’ work. The effect sizes Hattie found for various educational factors are ranked here. Kirschner, Sweller and Clark’s 2006 paper Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not […]

  25. […] instruction, providing quality feedback to teachers, focusing our efforts on strategies that work (Hattie’s work), sustaining this improvement work over time (years), ensuring the parents are informed and […]

  26. […] is formative assessment important? John Hattie’s work Visible Learning details 138 factors that influence student learning, and among them, formative assessment, or “formative evaluation” as he terms it, has […]

  27. […] an analysis of over 800 meta-analyses of classroom strategies, Dr. John Hattie identifies over 130 factors that yield learning results.  Looking at his list, the most effective factors involve the kind of structure and feedback the […]

  28. […] John Hattie’s research and the effect sizes. (10 […]

  29. […] then compared the research from John Hattie and the Sutton Report, noting that in both reports Digital Technology was not even in the top ten […]

  30. […] Nobody wants to be that teacher – the one who assigns a massive packet of busy work, due the first day back to school, but it is evident that extended vacations result in a reversal of some learning.  This loss of learning increases with grade level, so at the ages we are trying to maximise the use of high-impact teaching and learning strategies, we run the risk of much of that work being undone by Summertime Subsidence (d=-0.02). […]

  31. […] then compared the research from John Hattie and the Sutton Report, noting that in both reports Digital Technology was not even in the top ten […]

  32. […] A: The excellent John Hattie has developed the 138 achievement influencers. Hattie ranked these influencers according to their learning outcome effect size. The average […]

  33. […] the 138 learning influencers from the six areas that contribute to learning (student, home, school, curricula, teacher, teaching […]

  34. […] This is sound theory and although negative beliefs about disadvantaged students may be subconscious, they are still incredibly damaging to students’ self-concept and their outcomes. In addition, Hattie’s Visible Learning notes that the teacher-student relationship is a significant factor in student achievement, with an effect size of… […]

  35. […] jaar een artikel, naar aanleiding van de Learning Tomorrow week. Hij refereert in dit stuk aan de meta-studie van John Hattie en stelt dat docenten onvoldoende geëquipeerd zijn om te bepalen wat wel of niet effectief is. […]

  36. […] detter er kun udvalgte punkter og John Hatties oprindelige liste indeholder mange flere områder. Da flere af lige disse netop er den læring, som indarbejdes i den […]

  37. […] can inform practice and practice can inform research. With this in mind and my recent readings of John Hattie (2014), I am keen to explore some of his project’s findings during my reflective practice. I am not […]

  38. […] 16 000 studies) into a list that is both affirming and at times surprising. You can view his list here. (Note where acceleration appears.) Make sure you read the preamble regarding what Hattie would […]

  39. […] temática de los estudios analizados por Hattie es muy amplia (ver lista completa), como, por ejemplo,  los efectos del calendario escolar, el tamaño de las escuelas, el estatus […]

  40. […] Current research suggests that getting feedback right, establishing productive teacher-student relationships, reciprocal teaching and fostering meta-cognitive strategies to help students become better at learning are among the strategies for which there is a robust evidence base for improved outcomes. From this perspective, the first step for any technology based intervention, such as a 1-to-1 strategy, really ought to be ensure that it can support these and other strategies that have been shown to improve student outcomes. […]

  41. […] goal-set and then search for evidence of meeting goals and criteria in subsequent pieces of work. Students as self-assessors = huge impact on learning and achievement! Anne Davies’ examples of co-constructing criteria reminded me of the agency and importance of […]

  42. […] Waack, S. (n.d.). Hattie Ranking: Influences And Effect Sizes Related To Student Achievement. Retrieved from Visible Learning: http://visible-learning.org/hattie-ranking-influences-effect-sizes-learning-achievement/ […]

  43. […] is a hot topic; it garners much attention and researchers such as Hattie seem to indicate that improving questioning can have a positive impact on student progress.  Tom […]

  44. […] Clarity – this is hugely important. Hattie has this as one of his biggest hitters. I agree. Some people out there in the history world are […]

  45. […] for example, class size doesn’t matter, but micro-teaching and feedback does (you can find a brief summary on this site). The most powerful predictor of success is students’ expectation of themselves. So, if you […]

  46. […] Clarity – this is hugely important. Hattie has this as one of his biggest hitters. I agree. Some people out there in the history world are […]

  47. […] I had the opportunity to meet with a small cohort of new teachers and a veteran, henceforth Ms. A (not her real name), who was implementing AFL during my first year in district. She shared her experiences in preparing students for this shift in assessing and grading, as well as how she had to modify her teaching. One of the biggest takeaways from my year with Ms. A had to do with assessments, particularly how to “grade” them. Gone were the days of tabulating points. In came written feedback. I’m not talking about “Nice job!” or “There is an error here.” Descriptive feedback is an extension of scaffolding. Its intent is to guide a student and provide support to help them realize their error, ultimately to learn from and correct it. John Hattie reports that, with an effect size of 0.73, feedback is among the top-10 things that strongly influences student achievement. […]

  48. […] is critically important – it’s right at the top of Hattie’s list of effects (here, here and […]

  49. […] top ten teaching strategies that work. Hattie’s research indicates the supreme importance of clear feedback, measurable achievement, and meaningful formative evaluation. Further, John Dunlosky’s review of the evidence identifies retrieval practice as profoundly […]

  50. […] at 150 of them and put on one scale, the effect on student achievement of these. The full chart is here. An effect size of 0.40 on his scale is what educators should expect and aim for when trying to […]

  51. […] que société faisons-nous une fixation collective sur la réussite scolaire des garçons ? Selon les données de métanalyse de la vaste étude menée par Hattie, le genre n’a pas n’impact statistique significatif sur la réussite scolaire. De plus, […]

  52. […] que société faisons-nous une fixation collective sur la réussite scolaire des garçons ? Selon les données de la vaste étude menée par Hattie (synthèse de 800 méta-analyses), le genre des élèves n’a pas n’impact significatif sur la réussite scolaire. Selon le […]

  53. […] in his book Visible Learning for Teachers, shows that there is a limited correlation between class size and student achievement. One thing we don’t pretend is that a teacher’s job is so much more than a focus on student […]

  54. […] in trying to summarise ‘what works’, like the EEF toolkit or Hattie’s Visible Learning, are the starting point rather than the final word in discussions about school improvement or […]

  55. […] His studies in effect sizes relate to how much impact something has on a learner. For example according to his studies “self report grades” are a highly effective teaching tool where as “mobility”  has no impact.    For more information click –> John Hattie […]

  56. […] J., (2014). 138 Influences Related To Achievement – Hattie effect size list. Retrieved from http://visible-learning.org/hattie-ranking-influences-effect-sizes-learning-achievement/ Mishra, P. & Koehler. M. J. (2009). Too cool for school? No way! Using the TPACK framework: You […]

  57. […] cited John Hattie’s work analyzing the effect of 138 influences on student achievement. Homework, class size, gender and motivation are some of the influencers on the list. But according […]

  58. […] me semble pédagogiquement efficace, comme en témoigne le classement de Hattie (« Hattie Ranking: Influences And Effect Sizes Related To Student Achievement » : « self-reported […]

  59. […] influence student achievement. The aim of the study was to analyze as much research as possible to rank the practices that have the biggest effect on student achievement. While his work has been criticized in some corners, we can still draw a lot from it and it is a […]

  60. […] examine what makes a difference in education, laptops, and other technology, come way down the ranks. Some educationalists go as far as to describe the use of computers in schools as distractions, […]

  61. […] to take ownership of their learning. Using these principles or other meta studies from the work of John Hattie, could help focus the use of technology and integration efforts in […]

  62. […] enough, teacher subject matter knowledge has been shown to make little difference by John Hattie‘s big data crunch (Despite how others might feel). This also seemed to be the case in Sugata […]

  63. […] “where you want to be.” An emphasis should also be placed on practices that possess significant effect sizes related to student […]

  64. […] par John Hattie, la supériorité nette du Problem solving teaching sur le Problem based learning http://visible-learning.org/hattie-ranking-influences-effect-sizes-learning-achievement/ ainsi que Hattie and Yates, Visible Learning and the Science of How we learn », Routledge, London […]

  65. […] self-assessment on student learning.  Many of us are familiar with the meta-analysis work of John Hattie looking at structures that impact student learning.  At the top of the list is Student […]

  66. […] has identified 138 influences on student achievement and ranked them by degree of effectiveness. Here’s his top […]

  67. […] a identifié 138 facteurs de réussite scolaire et les a classés par degré d’efficacité. Voici son top […]

  68. […] is the biggest single negative impact on student attainment that he found (the full list is at http://visible-learning.org/hattie-ranking-influences-effect-sizes-learning-achievement/). As all International Schools know, mobility is often unavoidable, and schools such as ours plan […]

  69. […] (5) Voir par exemple le classement établi par John Hattie qui relègue les pédagogies axées sur la découverte ou le jeu bien loin derrière http://visible-learning.org/hattie-ranking-influences-effect-sizes-learning-achievement/ […]

  70. […] since I first learned about John Hattie’s Visible Learning, I frequently check this website when I want to know something’s “effect size.” (Hattie conducted a meta-analysis of […]

  71. […] freely available to teachers that can enhance feedback (The Education Endowment Foundation and Hattie have research to suggest this has a significantly positive impact on learning. For balance you may […]

  72. […] brillant, comme nous le soulignons déjà ou comme le soulignait récemment un rapport Pisa et dans les classement de John Hattie sur les facteurs qui favorisent la réussite scolaire, aucun n'évoque des questions technologiques). L'apport des technologies dans l'éducation demeure […]

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About Visible Learning
Visible Learning means an enhanced role for teachers as they become evaluators of their own teaching. Visible Teaching and Learning occurs when teachers see learning through the eyes of students and help them become their own teachers.

Visible Learning plus is a professional development programme for teachers. It provides an in-depth review and change model for schools based on John Hattie's research. With a seminar and support series the Visible Learning plus team helps schools to find out about the impact they are having on student achievement. www.visiblelearningplus.com